, In August 1945 Ferdinand wrote a final will that revoked all previous ones. a request rather than a binding testament. All went to private collections.  Klimt in particular challenged what he saw as the "hypocritical boundaries of respectability set by Viennese society"; according to the art historian Susanna Partsch, he was "the enfant terrible of the Viennese art scene, [and] was acknowledged to be the painter of beautiful women". They stated that five of the six paintings in question should be returned to the Bloch-Bauer estate, as outlined in Ferdinand's will; only the Portrait of Amalie Zuckerkandl was to be retained by the gallery. , In December 1941 Führer transferred the paintings Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I and Apfelbaum I to the Galerie Belvedere in return for Schloss Kammer am Attersee III, which he then sold to Gustav Ucicky, an illegitimate son of Klimt.  In 1903 Ferdinand purchased his first Klimt work from the artist, Buchenwald (Beech Forest). The art historian Julle M. Johnson states that the writer was, The Austrian Art Restitution Act was brought in following the seizure in the US of, Schoenberg was the grandson of the composer, Schoenberg selected Nödl, a Viennese barrister; the Austrian government picked Rechberger, the dean of the Faculty of Law at the, United States District Court for the Central District of California, Gustav Klimt and Adele Bloch-Bauer, Neue Galerie, Neue Galerie New York Agrees to Acquire Spectacular Klimt Painting, US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit: Altmann V. Republic of Austria (2003), "Republic of Austria v. Altmann 541 U.S. 677 (2004)", "Gustav Klimt: Five Paintings from the Collection of Ferdinand and Adele Bloch-Bauer", 2006, "New York: Staged Reading: The Accidental Caregiver", Embassy of Austria, "Court Awards Nazi-Looted Artworks to L.A. Woman", "Klimts Go to Market; Museums Hold Their Breath", "Patt Morrison Asks: E. Randol Schoenberg—for the gold Klimt", "Lauder Pays $135 Million, a Record, for a Klimt Portrait", "The Gustav Klimt Painting Oprah Reportedly Sold for $150M Has Quite a Story", "Arbitral Award – 5 Klimt paintings Maria V. Altmann and others v. Republic of Austria, 15 January 2004", "Testament vom 19.1.1923 von Adele Bloch-Bauer", "Portrait of Wally – United States and Estate of Lea Bondi and Leopold Museum", "Gustav Klimt and Adele Bloch-Bauer: The Woman in Gold", "Gustav Klimt: Five Paintings from the Collection of Ferdinand and Adele Bloch-Bauer". The titular character in Woman in Gold is Adele Bloch-Bauer, whose husband, Czech sugar mogul Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer, commissioned Austrian symbolist painter Gustav Klimt to paint two portraits of his wife when she was 25 years old.  Socially well-connected, Adele brought together writers, politicians and intellectuals for regular salons at their home. Whitford writes that the only evidence put forward to support the theory is the position of the woman's right hand, as Adele had a disfigured finger following a childhood accident. , "Woman in Gold" redirects here.  In February 1918, Klimt suffered a stroke and was hospitalised; he caught pneumonia due to the worldwide influenza epidemic and died that month.. , In 1901 Klimt painted Judith and the Head of Holofernes; the art historian Gottfried Fliedl observes that the painting is "widely known and interpreted as Salome". [n 2], The couple shared a love of art, and patronised several artists, collecting primarily nineteenth-century Viennese paintings and modern sculpture. The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941, along with the remainder of Ferdinand's assets, after a charge of tax evasion was made against him. Maria Altmann and members of her family attempt to flee to the United States. This kind of thing happens all the time.  Schoenberg, who had worked on a 40 per cent conditional fee throughout, received $54 million for the sale of Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I and $55 million for the sale of the remaining four paintings. Girl with a Pearl Earring, oil painting (c. 1665) by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, one of his most well-known works. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (also called The Lady in Gold or The Woman in Gold) is a painting by Gustav Klimt, completed between 1903 and 1907.The portrait was commissioned by the sitter's husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer (de), a Jewish banker and sugar producer. , In 1946 the Austrian state issued an Annulment Act that declared all transactions motivated by Nazi discrimination were void; any Jews who wanted to remove artwork from Austria were forced to give some of their works to Austrian museums in order to obtain an export permit for others. He died of a broken heart.” Of course, the Nazis seized all of Ferdinand's assets, which included his vast art collection. The painting is considerably larger (almost two by two and a half meters) and equally stilted. " In June 2006 the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I was sold to Ronald Lauder for $135 million, at the time a record price for a painting.  Also present are decorative motifs on the theme of the letters A and B, the sitter's initials. Her Uncle Ferdinand gave her Adele's jewelled choker as a wedding gift. The Nazis held Fredrick at Dachau concentration camp to persuade his brother, Bernhard, to sign over his lucrative textile factory to them. 6.  In the late 1890s Adele met Klimt, and may have begun a relationship with him. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. The title of the painting, which is known in English as Mona Lisa, comes from a description by Renaissance art historian Giorgio Vasari, who wrote "Leonardo undertook to paint, for Francesco del Giocondo, the portrait of Mona Lisa, his wife." , As part of the process to deal with the purported tax evasion, the Nazi lawyer Friedrich Führer was appointed as the administrator of the estate. [n 1] Klimt had begun using gold in his 1890 portrait of the pianist Joseph Pembauer, but his first work that included a golden theme was Pallas Athene (1898). It depicts an imaginary young woman in exotic dress and a very large pearl earring. The Galerie Belvedere based its claim of retention of the Klimt works on Adele's will. , Adele's parents arranged a marriage with Ferdinand Bloch, a banker and sugar manufacturer; Adele's older sister had previously married Ferdinand's older brother. Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as ma donna – similar to Ma'am, Madam, or my lady in English.  The Bloch-Bauer family hired Dr Gustav Rinesh, a Viennese lawyer, to reclaim stolen artwork on their behalf. Altmann recalled: “My father died two weeks after that.  Opinion is divided on whether Adele and Klimt had an affair. The New York Times noted at that time this was "the highest sum ever paid for a painting." In so doing, it disregarded the fact that his own will had left his estate to his nieces and nephews. Altmann took the sweater to a department store in Beverly Hills, which agreed to sell them. Eileen Kinsella, the editor of ARTnews, considered the high price was due to several factors, particularly the painting's provenance, the increasing demand for Austrian Expressionism, rising prices in the art world and "Lauder's passion for and pursuit of this particular work".  The works by Klimt which Ferdinand owned, including the two portraits, were moved to Adele's bedroom as a shrine to her. , In December 1937 Gustav's daughter–and Ferdinand's niece–Maria, married the young opera singer Fritz Altman. [n 13], After the panel's decision was announced, the Galerie Belvedere ran a series of advertisements that appeared in bus stops and on underground railway platforms. Learn about how the beloved children's book came to be and the hidden political message in its story. The art historian Gilles Néret considers that the use of gold in the painting "underlines the essential erotic ingredient in ... [Klimt's] view of the world". Learn about the Jewish refugee whose painting of her aunt was stolen by Nazis and inspired the 2015 movie starring Helen Mirren. The couple had three sons and a daughter in America, building a life together in a country that welcomed them. The couple then lived under house arrest until Altmann managed to elude the guards by claiming that her husband needed a dentist. Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. It was exhibited in 1908 under the title Liebespaar (the lovers) as stated in the catalogue of the exhibition. The painting, completed in 1937, is a colorful display of the pain felt in a time of horror. This list includes both active and no longer active (defunct) companies. The first and most famous of the two later became known as Woman in Gold. Paintings by high-value artists need to be referred to one of the more high-end auctioneers such as Sotheby's, Christie's etc. Her father was a director of the Wiener Bankverein [de], the seventh largest bank in Austria-Hungary, and the general director of Oriental Railroads. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer, painting by Gustav Klimt (1862-1918).  Lenz later wrote that "the mosaics made an immense decisive impression on ... [Klimt]. Emblazoned with a reputation for sexual promiscuity, the longest-reigning Empress of Russia was actually a “serial monogamist” who sent her exes off with lovely parting gifts. Afterward, Altmann recalled that the family’s regular Sunday brunches at her uncle’s house always included a viewing of the portrait, as well as four other works by Klimt, including another later painting of Adele. In September the following year, he moved to neutral Switzerland where he lived in a hotel. Enough loans.’ ”. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer is currently being displayed in New York’s Neue Galerie. Yet Altmann never forgot what the Nazis stole from her family. In 1999 she and her lawyer tried to sue the Austrian government. Staats-Gallerie in Wien, die mir gehörende Wiener und Jungfer. [n 4] The Bloch-Bauers purchased some of the sketches he had made of Adele when they obtained 16 Klimt drawings. (Translates from the German as: "I ask my husband after his death to leave my two portraits and the four landscapes by Gustav Klimt to the Austrian State Gallery in Vienna. The beloved hymn and its author John Newton, a former enslaver, have inspired a new Broadway musical, but the true history is complex and ambiguous. Going by various names over the centuries, it became known by its present title towards the end of the 20th century after the large pearl earring worn by the girl portrayed there. When the Austrian government passed a restitution law in 1998, ruling that property stolen by the Nazis could be returned to its rightful owners, Maria Altmann — now in her 80s — began a legal battle to regain the Klimts that belonged to her family, which … Ronald Lauder, a businessman and philanthropist who had loved Adele's face from boyhood, happily paid $135 million to enshrine her in his Neue Galerie in Manhattan. Ferdinand died in 1946; his will stated that his estate should go to his nephew and two nieces. Adele Bloch-Bauer II sold for $87.9 million, Apfelbaum I for $33 million, Buchenwald for $40.3 million and Häuser in Unterach am Attersee for $31 million.  Klimt drew over a hundred preparatory sketches for the portrait between 1903 and 1904. , In 1998 the Austrian government introduced the Art Restitution Act,[n 8] which looked again at the question of art stolen by the Nazis.  The will included a reference to the Klimt works owned by the couple, including the two portraits of her: Meine 2 Porträts und die 4 Landschaften von Gustav Klimt, bitte ich meinen Ehegatten nach seinem Tode der österr. The portrait was commissioned by the sitter's husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer [de], a Jewish banker and sugar producer. The artist Catherine Dean considered that Adele was "the only society lady painted by Klimt who is known definitely to be his mistress", while the journalist Melissa Müller and the academic Monica Tatzkow write that "no evidence has ever been produced that their relationship was more than a friendship". A note accompanying the paintings stated he was acting in accordance with Adele's will. A masterpiece of the early Modern period, Gustav Klimt's 'The Kiss' is a deceptively simple portrait of lust and love. Now, a first look at Kristen Wiig’s role in Wonder Woman 1984 has also been shared. However, the world came to know Adele as Klimt had painted her in 1907. , The history of the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I and the other paintings taken from the Bloch-Bauers has been recounted in three documentary films, Stealing Klimt (2007), The Rape of Europa (2007) and Adele's Wish (2008). [n 12] Schoenberg gave evidence before them in September 2005 and, in January 2006, they delivered their judgement. He sent Altmann a cashmere sweater to see if Americans might like the fine, soft wool. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art.Klimt's primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism.  Göring also used the Führervorbehalt decree to obtain the jewelled choker that had been given to Maria Altmann; it was given as a gift to Emmy, his wife. Three arbitrators formed the panel, Andreas Nödl, Walter Rechberger and Peter Rummel. FACE VALUE Pablo Picasso’s Bust of a Woman, 1931.Opposite, the artist in Cannes, September 11, 1956. Find more prominent pieces of portrait at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. [n 9] The government formed a restitution committee to report on which works should be returned; government archives were opened up to research into the provenance of works held by the government. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (also called The Lady in Gold or The Woman in Gold) is a painting by Gustav Klimt, completed between 1903 and 1907. This is a list of film production and distribution companies. The Altmanns then fled to America and ultimately settled in California.  Ferdinand left Vienna for his Czechoslovakian castle in March 1938, following the Anschluss of Austria by Nazi Germany.  Over four years of litigation followed as to whether the case could be brought against a sovereign state before it was brought before the Supreme Court in Republic of Austria v. Ferdinand also had a passion for neoclassical porcelain, and by 1934 his collection was over 400 pieces and one of the finest in the world.  The portrait is featured in the memoir of Gregor Collins, The Accidental Caregiver, about his relationship with Maria Altmann, published in August 2012. Although there were calls from some Austrians for the state to purchase the five paintings, the government stated that the price would be too high to justify the expense. , In 1908 the portrait was exhibited at the Kunstschau in Vienna where critical reaction was mixed. Around her neck is the same jewelled choker Klimt included in the Judith painting. Here's a surprising look at the real actress who lived beyond the glare of her celebrity. One of Ferdinand's nieces, Maria Altmann, hired the lawyer E. Randol Schoenberg to make a claim against the gallery for the return of five works by Klimt. In 1925, Adele died of meningitis at the age of 44. , From 1898 Klimt began to experiment with the style in what became known as his Byzantine or Golden period, when his works, stylistically influenced by Art Nouveau and the Arts and Crafts movement, were gilded with gold leaf. But beyond that glittery gold leaf, the work is full of fascinating facts. Following the Anschluss of Austria by Nazi Germany, Ferdinand fled Vienna, and made his way to Switzerland, leaving behind much of his wealth, including his large art collection. - September 7, 2015. He continued to paint such images right until his death in 1918. It had kept the paintings based on Adele’s will in which she made a “kind request,” that Ferdinand donate the paintings to the state museum after his death, which took place in 1945. With whatever its shortcomings it was thought sufficiently impressive to deserve an honorable mention when shown at the Exposicion General de Bellas Artes in Madrid in the spring of 1897, and a gold medal in provincial Malaga shortly afterwards. After the collection was catalogued, Adolf Hitler used the Führervorbehalt [de] decree to obtain part of the collection at a reduced price. That autumn, following the Munich Agreement, he realised he was not safe and left for Paris. Schoenberg was the son of a woman she had been friends with since they lived in Vienna. If you haven't found a fortune in your backyard, don't give up! The painting show a little girl in the protecting arms of a young woman, while beside them an old woman stands with bowed head. The posters said "Ciao Adele", advertising the last opportunity before the painting left the country and long queues formed around the block. The artist and the work are legal tender.  Néret also states that Klimt used the gold to give subjects a sacred or magical quality. The couple, who had no children, both changed their surnames to Bloch-Bauer. , Michael Kimmelman, the chief art critic for the New York Times, was critical of the sale, and wrote that "A story about justice and redemption after the Holocaust has devolved into yet another tale of the crazy, intoxicating art market. The committee turned down the request, again citing Adele's will as the reason they were retaining the works. An actress in the 1964 James Bond 'Goldfinger' film did not die from being covered with gold paint. Next on the list is “The Lady in Gold”, painted by Austrian artist, Gustav Klimt. She sold it the same year for $135 million, at the time a record price for a painting to the businessman and art collector Ronald Lauder, who placed the work in the Neue Galerie, the New York-based gallery he co-founded. The most famous of all Gustav Klimt paintings, the central piece of the Vienna Secession art movement and one of the finest artworks of the early modern period, The Kiss depicts two lovers embraced on the edge of a flower field or meadow.  In places the dress merges into the background so much so that the museum curator Jan Thompson writes that "one comes across the model almost by accident, so enveloped is she in the thick geometric scheme". The painting has been on display at the location since. , Klimt exhibited his portrait at the 1907 Mannheim International Art Show, alongside the Portrait of Fritza Riedler (1906). The painting thrilled the art critics when first presented in 1908 and the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere bought it immediately despite the fact that it was unfinished. But the Nazis stole them from her — the stunning necklace she wore on her wedding day was sent to Nazi leader Hermann Göring as a present for his wife. Several works were returned to the Bloch-Bauer estate, but no Klimt paintings; to obtain the necessary export permits, the family were forced to let the Austrian state retain Häuser in Unterach am Attersee, Adele Bloch-Bauer I, Adele Bloch-Bauer II, and Apfelbaum I. For many years, Altmann had assumed that the Austrian National Gallery had taken possession of the Klimt paintings.  The painting was lent for an exhibition at the Vienna Secession in 1928 to mark the tenth anniversary of Klimt's death; in 1934 it was displayed in London as part of the Austria in London exhibition.  To remove all reference to its Jewish subject matter, the gallery renamed the portrait with the German title Dame in Gold (translates as Lady in Gold). shop now Worn singularly it can be elegant; layered up in a mismatched way it's a touch bohemian.  During the 1890s he was influenced by European avant-garde art, including the works of the painters Fernand Khnopff, Jan Toorop and Aubrey Beardsley. Included in the exhibition will be a display of Adele Bloch-Bauer I, paintings, related drawings, vintage photographs, decorative arts, and … The avant-garde of the Austrian capital included the composer Arnold Schoenberg. The 2015 film focuses on Bloch-Bauer's niece Maria Altmann, played by Helen Mirren, and her quest to reclaim the famous Klimt painting from the Austrian government, but there is a lot more to her story. “They will delay, delay, delay, hoping I will die,” she told The Los Angeles Times in 2001, with no end in sight to her case. Other stores across the country followed suit, and Altmann eventually opened her own clothing boutique. , Adele's hair, face, décolletage and hands are painted in oil; they make up less than a twelfth of the work and, in Whitford's opinion, convey little about the sitter's character.  The story of Adele Bloch-Bauer and Maria Altmann formed the basis for the 2017 novel Stolen Beauty by Laurie Lico Albanese.  In 1897 he was a founding member and president of the Vienna Secession, a group of artists who wanted to break with what they saw as the prevailing conservatism of the Viennese Künstlerhaus.  In December 1903, along with fellow artist Maximilian Lenz, Klimt visited the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna where he studied the early-Christian Byzantine gold mosaics of Justinian I and his wife, Empress Theodora.  The frame for the painting, covered in gold leaf, was made by the architect Josef Hoffmann. At the time, it was the largest sum ever purchased for a painting. Two years later, the art finally found its way to her home in Los Angeles, becoming the most expensive return of Nazi-stolen art at that time. The portrait is the final and most fully representative work of Klimt's golden phase. They were also forced to relinquish any claims on Buchenwald and Schloss Kammer am Attersee III. Ferdinand's brother Gustav, a lawyer by training, helped her frame the document and was named as the executor. 4. Ferdinand gave her Adele's jewelled choker as a wedding present. The painting is an example of Klimt's symbolic and allegorial works. Picasso painted Science and Charity at age 16. A romance between the women is depicted in the movie "Ammonite," but historians believe they were simply close friends.  Adele was the model for the work, and wore a heavily-jewelled deep choker given to her by Ferdinand, in what Whitford describes as "Klimt's most erotic painting". “But I will do them the pleasure of staying alive.”, She did and she triumphed. Maria Viktoria Bloch-Bauer was born to Gustav Bloch-Bauer and Therese Bauer on February 18, 1916, in Vienna, Austria. While Altmann and her husband are successful, she is forced to abandon her parents in Vienna. Bernhard had already escaped to London by this time, but when he heard the news about his brother, he gave the Nazis his business, and in turn, Frederick was set free. Her wealthy Jewish family, including her uncle Ferdinand and aunt Adele, were close to the artists of the Vienna Secession movement, which Klimt helped establish in 1897. 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